Morally injurious events can typically be grouped into two kinds of situations.
Perpetration events occur when we do something that violates our morals by commission (e.g., doing something that hurts someone), omission (e.g., not doing something that would help someone), or failing to prevent a perceived immoral act (e.g., not doing something that would prevent harm to another). For example, being forced to turn a dying patient’s loved ones away is an act of commission that may be experienced as a morally injurious event.
Betrayal experiences occur when we are morally violated by something we trust — like an organization or leader in power. For example, healthcare providers who are asked to care for patients without proper personal protective equipment, sufficient training, or adequate compensation can experience moral betrayal.